Chinese Society Pet Issue

Chinese Society Pet Issue

In the Chinese society, the pet issue is long-standing problem, since the Chinese government open the door to the world, For encourage and development of private ownership economy, pet once again entered the Chinese mainland people's vision field, and for the pet news events , in time of nearly 30 years, China society and news media from advocate mass killing the pets, until now advice people treat pets well, the news topics from coverage angle and way of presentation, is undergoing tremendous changes, there are so many reason of causing this change, but a lot of evidence shows, the main reason is from the mainland government controlled media, under the humanitarian infection, and produce those change, in order to demonstrate this change occurred inevitability and causal links, we select and Mainland China with the Taiwan for comparison, They are two in the cultural and ethnic high similarity region, so on issue of pet treats, they’re origin culture ideology is similar society of Taiwan due to open up to the world earlier, and get close relation between Europe, the United States, Japan, and Taiwan deeply affected by these countries. In order to better study the mainland China and Taiwan in this theme has what kind differences of exists or reality, we selected cat, dog as the main object of comparison both in China and Taiwan, one reason is those kind animal are highly dependent on human society and make them life. Our comparison is effected by compared to the same period the both China and Taiwan newspapers and magazines in report the issue of cat or dog news content are similarities or differences, through to these news content analysis, compare and conduct the ideology and public spheres produced the variety of effects. At the same time this theme also deeply connected to the mainland people ideology of humanism, it also can reflect social structure, and the most important is the change of ideology in China, and compare Taiwan, we can see different politic system use into the same ethnic or culture people act different roles, In mainland China, because Communist ideological indoctrination, many people think that the keep pet is the capitalist social behavior, is not in same line with the socialist ideology. when after the China reform and opening through 10years - 20 years of social change, China people's ideology has been updated, and new generation Chinese is also show striking receptive on western ideology, this point is also expressed on the issue of keeping or treating pets. Another part of the population of China who keeping pets in the city is the elderly person, after China reforming and opening, Chinese life speed accelerated, they’re children come home less and less time, and Chinese elderly person tend to have very strong sense of family, but at their own gradually lost its social value. But they from pets find a sense of self-existing feeling, and spiritual consolation. There is still a part of pet owner in Chinese society is benefited from the reform and opening they are belong in the rich class, some people through purchase expensive price rare purebred dogs in China in to attempt to raise their own social status and show off their wealth, this part of the people also led to many don not like dog very much, the deeply resent the mainland China after the reform and open policy the social wealth distribution injustice, public exposed their feeling of hate dog.

Whether both in mainland China or Taiwan, the traditional culture for pet image description than western society is very biased, in the field of traditional Chinese culture, the dog have profound bias, the dog image in the China traditional culture represents a despised and be negative meaning, ( add Chinese culture western papers ), we cannot say Chinese traditional society to the dog is very friendly, but as the same origin of Taiwan society, the dog, not matter the ideology or public sphere Taiwan treat the pet issue is very humanity and well but mainland China always mass kill dogs by the public health motivations ,those contrast illustrate that: firstly China has never had any official laws and regulations to regulate human to pet obligations and protection wills, and Taiwan have laws to limit human behaviors may cause harm to the pet ( Taiwan animal protection law abbreviation: animal protection method from 1992to 1998 brewing legislation, at first the main purpose is to maintain the animal welfare or rights). Through compare those difference in Taiwan and mainland China indicate both ideology and public spheres produced a huge influence on people’s sense for treat pet.

Research Question
Q1: Mainland China and Taiwan people treat pets very are differently, whether it should be directly attributed to the politic Ideology difference? The ideology is how to influence the two area people in the cognition and treatment of pet issue and why produce such great differences?

Q2: Since China's reform and opening market in last two decade, newspapers and other traditional media in leading the people on look at pets issues plays a very important role, the fact is in mainland China the media was controlled by government for a long time, for the political needs, including public health issue and maintenance of city environment, pet image always exists as a negative image in media, but in recent years it has improved, why? Often in mainland China newspaper and TV for always propaganda for the city sanitation needs or prevention disease needs, elimination or kills cats and dogs, but recently those kind reported was reduced .is there some connection with the fact that internet enter to mainland China's people's life, people can see the cruelty maltreatment situation of pet that government in the treatment of pet is inhuman, and if there is more important that received foreign humanitarian ideology infection, and link to the suddenly appeared in China developed city to protect animal the NGO organization, the network media and NGO organization hand in hand make the good influence to the process?

Annoted Bibography
The ideology of Taiwan and mainland China shows difference characteristic not only on the issue of Government propaganda policy but also influence on the people’s recognize. These kind huge differences reveal the ideology theory how to infect people’s attitude and opinion on pet’s issue. It must be emphasized that the Taiwan and mainland China has same culture origin but in the government behavior and peoples attitude they had huge different. And I think leading to this fact, is government level’s different ideology.

For clarify the ideology how to infect personal recognized, firstly I want establish the link and reaction relation between the personality traits and political ideologies according the academic journal “Correlation not Causation: The Relationship between Personality Traits and Political Ideologies”. The field of political science is witnessing a renaissance in the exploration of the relationship between personality traits and political propaganda (Gerber et al. 2010; Jost et al. 2003; Mondak and Halperin 2008; Mondak et al. 2010). They belief that personality traits are innate, decided by genetic, and began develop in infancy (Bouchard et al. 1990; Eaves et al. 1999;Eysenck 1967; Loehlin 1992; McRae et al. 2000), whereas political attitudes can continue develop in adulthood, it has led to the assumption that personality traits cause the subsequent development of political attitudes or political propaganda. Recent year scholarship has demonstrated that political attitudes develop more easy than previously suspected (Block and Block 2006; Hess and Torney 1967), the precursors of which are present prior to a child’s first year in school (Persson 2010) and are also influenced by genetic factors (Alford, Funk, and Hibbing 2005; Eaves, Eysenck, and Martin 1989; Hatemi et al. 2010;Martin et al. 1986). Furthermore, the personality traits and political relations attitudes have been founded be function on latent shared genetic influences (Eaves and Eysenck 1974; Verhulst, Hatemi, and Martin 2010). These findings also illustrate the same race of people may have the same cognitive tendency by reason of genetic, as like the mainland China and Taiwan. So study this journal we will obtain the more detail and understanding the intricacy interaction between the naturally personal cognitive traits and even their latency political attitudes tendency may have. In the journal the author using Cholesky decomposition (both refer mathematic & psychology subject), though the Cholesky decomposition offered us some very important result to understood the relationship between personality traits and political attitudes. As the result, according to the paper “First, the vast majority of genetic variance in political attitudes is not accounted for by the covariance with the personality dimensions, underscoring the distinctiveness between the constructs. This suggests is unlikely to be true. Second, because the majority of the relationship between attitudes and personality is localized in the additive genetic variance component, it is also unlikely that people are selecting into environments based on their personality which subsequently foster the development of political attitudes or that the environment is moderating the impact of personality on their political attitudes as these pathway simply that the predominant source of covariance between personality and attitudes would be localized in the environmental variance components. The results so far suggest that the relationship between personality traits and political attitudes is more likely a function of a common set of genes shared between the personality traits and the political attitudes.”

In the end the journals author have assumed a causal link between personality traits and political ideology was cannot testified. But there is the “primary connection between personality traits and political ideology rests on common genetic precursors of each”. For this point, the journal interpret some connection between genetic and people’s cognitive pattern, and we can educts as the same race or ethnic group the China and Taiwan people has highly similar to them gene, it may cause them has comparatively similar political attitudes and personality traits in somehow.

The another journal named: “Ideology, Power, and the Structure of Policy Network” elaborate the role of power and ideology in the innate pattern formation of policy networks, based on the dates of Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF), illustrated that ideology has been prove is the primary driver of collaboration within policy subsystems even policy system also inferred . As the author’s hypotheses, they are “tested using a new method of egocentric network correlation, based on survey data of policy networks in five regional planning subsystems in California (N = 506). Results suggest that ideology is an important force behind policy network cohesion.” In this meaning, ideology again reveals it huge influence ability for the policy issue. It also reminds us the ideology is one kind strong force that we cannot ignore.

In the paper “Perspectives and ideologies: A pragmatic use for recognition theory.” The journal started form the respect of recognition’s concept to interpretation the function of ideology, through the concept of recognition can play at the intersection of two philosophies, pragmatism and contemporary critical theory and it also link to the ideology the author said:
“My perspective is one that embraces the ‘pragmatic turn’ in critical theory and sees the possibility of reciprocal benefit for pragmatism in how critical theory handles issues of material culture, alienation and networks of power. I argue that a critical social theory incorporating pragmatist presuppositions ought to bring the concept of recognition to bear in how it isolates and treats the ‘real interests’ of groups and individuals who have suffered and continue to suffer from broad social ascriptions of negative status, or who, through lack of voice and access to the public sphere, remain paralysed to participation in a thriving liberal democracy. In doing so, I do not construe recognition primarily as ‘positive tolerance’ or understanding of cultural, ethnic, or gender identity, but as a minimally substantive tool for understanding, and potentially correcting, how misrecognition impacts the collective and individual agency of the historically oppressed”.

In the author's view of the above, a number of key factors closely related to ideology theory, and also the author has do some extent to explain the individual person and ideological theory interaction relationship.

Further from the realistic point of view, to explain the influence of ideology theory on mainland China the journal named “Revolution and Reform: the role of ideology and hegemony in Chinese politics” from the political and historical perspective, explains the ideology play a significant role in politics in China. This paper using ideology and hegemony theory let us further understanding to Chinese politics through focuses on some theory from Antonio Gramsci and Henri Lefebvre, the paper declared the Chinese Communist Party government(CCP) tied held the ideological domination ,and as the result there are three conclusion. “First, Gramsci’s theory of hegemony can be applied more broadly to build a socialist regime, particularly in China where the party of the proletariat and its allies has been in a quandary over how to consolidate its ruling position after capturing political power. Second, the party needs to incorporate mass consciousness into the battlefield of politics so as to attain or maintain its hegemony. Third, the ideologies of revolution and reform are formulated to embed the CCP’s beliefs into people’s consciousness and to acquire consensus which is essential for the CCP’s hegemony in China.” On the other hands there are some evidence indicated the recent year CCP trends of ideologies has shown very difference and getting more resonantly compare with its revolutionary tradition, those transition indicate the CCP want change from a Leninist revolutionary party to a governing party, the other detail also said, “it reflects how new generations of CCP leaders inherit and develop the Party’s legacies, or as Jiang Zemin states, ‘keeps pace with the times’. These leaders’ priority is to secure the CCP’s hegemony in China and to guarantee long-term economic development in a stable society. ” to observe this course can provide us the fact and the reality about why the mainland China’s ideology changed so instability, and also is the fact why pet can get in mainland China family after The Great Culture Revolution.

The journal “Political Ideology and Social Studies Curricula in Taiwan” give us the detail information about the political ideology how to infer to the social studies curricula in Taiwan, It given us a the side depicts about Taiwan political ideology how to function to Taiwan people. And the paper also introduces the history and for matching history’s ideology in Taiwan, for the history during Taiwan was a part of China particular in the imperial period of Chinese history, And in the period 1894–1895, Taiwan had fallen to Japan as a condition of the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki. Until the 1943 Cairo conference, the US promised President Chiang Kai-shek that Taiwan would be returned after the World War II, and then in 1945, Taiwan was returned to the KMT government and became part of China once again (Cooper, 2000a).According to the author “although Japanese rule had ended, many Taiwanese citizens felt that the KMT was at least as repressive as its predecessor.Reacting against substantial economic inflation and a government they deemed corrupt, authoritarian, and discriminative, Taiwanese residents demanded democracy and the opening up of state-owned enterprises. Public dissatisfaction led to an island-wide anti-KMT riot on 28 February 1947, in which an estimated 3,000 to 30,000 Taiwanese intellectual and social elites were killed. This incident reinforced Taiwanese residents’ distrust toward the KMT state (Mao, 1997). Following the communist party takeover of the Mainland in 1949, Taiwan became a refuge for Mainland outcasts who supported national leader Chiang Kai-shek” .This kind of complex and special historical reality, created Taiwan tends to diversified ideology.

In order to learn more detail about Taiwan society especially the culture, the paper “Building civil society on rubble: Citizenship and the politics of culture in Taiwan.” Indicate the Taiwan politics is that differs from the Western civil society and also the political ideology is. Through analysis of some case in Taiwan, “that the state’s technologies of governance have radically restructured notions of the social and in turn the way people practice politics”; second, for the culture or culture ideology itself, the contest has become given rise to new forms of political action; and then, most importantly, the civil society rising has “occurred alongside the revitalization of tradition. In other words, presumably shared “tradition” inspires individuals’ political actions, which in practice operate quite separately from the premise of liberal individualism.” The author conclude that to the civil society emerges in Taiwan we must think it very carefully especially we cannot ignore political ideology participation.

But in order to study and contrast between Taiwan and the mainland China in the field of ideology, we also study the other papers involve to the cross-strait (mainland China and Taiwan) relations. Study of those papers, even their not directly related with our topic the pet issue, but their indicate why there are huge differences from the ideological point of view on both sides, and they can reveal the some collective subconscious issue, that Taiwan and mainland China government deliberately emphasized the difference tone in the people's life (involving the pet issue), in order to prove the government existence is rationality and difference.

The paper “Comments on Relevant Study on Corporate Culture across the Taiwan Straits” Consider the fact that Taiwan and China has more and more frequent economic and trade exchange across the Straits, Taiwan and the mainland China interaction has been increasingly higher. However. Because of the separation of Taiwan and mainland China, the Taiwan and mainland China already are revealing the cultural and behavioral differences. For the both side the similarities “understanding of and differences between the national culture and corporate culture of the two sides has great significance both to the academic field and enterprises.” author study on cross-culture and relevant the differences between culture of the mainland China and Taiwan, as the result, “the Chinese culture is characterized by focus on collectivity, harmony, modesty, tolerance and adaptation to the environment, etc. In comparison of cultures in Taiwan and mainland China, Taiwan and mainland China have similar historical and cultural background.” After hostile to each other for almost half century, some traditional values have distinctions. The author sees the Taiwan culture as a sub-culture of Chinese culture, and through focus on cultural differences between Taiwan and mainland China are merely confined to such aspects as national culture and consumption culture, and “studies on corporate culture and its influences is still wanting. ”

The other paper named “The Taiwan Straits Situation since Ma came to Office and Conditions for Cross-Straits Political Negotiations: a view from Shanghai.” Offered us the latest trend of cross-strait relations, the paper indicates after Ma Ying-jeo took over power in Taiwan in May 2008 relationship in cross-Straits has improved. It is a good chance for both sides and also good opportunity to advance step-by-step in the cross-straits relationship, and when “conditions are right, both sides should make joint efforts to create conditions for political negotiations,” Those evidences shows us, more and more bilateral interaction, make bilateral in the ideology is more and more close to each other, Taiwan animal protection ideology just in theory level have the some possible to effects to mainland China.

The paper named “What Taiwan can teach China.” This paper suggests a possibility, for some aspect the Taiwan’s consciousness and ideology can also influence the mainland China in some operation aspect, not only the China can affect Taiwan, Taiwan ideology can affect the mainland too, Taiwan's ideology has its own value to the mainland China.

The paper named “Dynamical Competition of IC-Industry Clustering from Taiwan to China.” Also indicate the same story about aspect the Taiwan’s consciousness and ideology can also influence the mainland China in some operation aspect, but this paper is more emphasis on the meaning of cooperation to interpret this issue. The paper through explore the industrial clusters reality both China and Taiwan to get this result.

After we learn a lot form the politic ideology aspect, there still another ideology it’s closely related to people’s health concepts, secular values, and humanitarian spirit, in order to learn the more detail, and according some news resources, public health problem has been one of the important reasons that Chinese government slaughter pets , in order to understand the Chinese public health problem and the public health problem why association with pet we choosing the following paper to studies.

“Rabies Immunization Status of Dogs, Beijing, China”. This paper gives us the precise information indicated the reality that why China must attention on the field of public health of pet issue. The article tells us about the dog vaccination coverage and immunization status in Beijing, China. According to the author’s Data it showed that most dogs with vaccination history were positively immunized. But the author still very worried that vaccination recording and vaccination strategies need to be improved in Beijing especially in suburban areas. Author want to help the government of Beijing to establish strategies to control the rabies epidemic in the city.

“Serological survey of canine dirofilariosis in Chongqing, Kunming, Nanchang, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, and Nanning in Southern China.” Said the same stories about mainland China are facing the deep trouble in the public health area and it may cause by the pet. According to paper data. “A total of 310 household dogs (166 females and 144 males) in Chongqing, Kunming, Nanchang, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, and Nanning in Southern China were examined. Of the 310 dogs, 42 (13.5%) were seropositive for dirofilariosis.

The paper “Serological evidence of West Nile virus in dogs and cats in China” continued indicate how critical the China public health area is, and also again caused by pet. The paper evaluated “West Nile virus (WNV) seroprevalence in dogs and cats in Shanghai, China. Seventeen of the 367 dogs (4.6%) and 46 of the 309 cats (14.9%) tested positive for WNV antibodies. A higher WNV seroprevalence was found with outdoor and rural pets than with indoor and urban pets.”

In China Some articles even already has the subjective bias on the title to the dogs. Like the paper “Investigation of the Role of Healthy Dogs as Potential Carriers of Rabies Virus.” But it also can reveal how dangers the public health issue is. To investigate whether healthy animals are potential carriers of rabies virus in China, the author selected 153 domestic dogs were collected from a rabies enzootic area, Anlong county in Guizhou Province, and monitored them for 6 months. Initially, findings of rabies virus antigen in the saliva of 15 dogs by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test suggested they might be carriers.

“Pivotal Role of Dogs in Rabies Transmission, China.” indicates increase the number of human rabies cases in China in 2003. The clinical symptoms of rabies on patients are fear of both wind and light. That means in China people are deep fear and direct exposure threat under rabies.

Remove public health aspect, some Chinese see pet in fear, but in traditional Chinese culture, from some kind of degree to the dog, Chinese are not friendly. “'Is it okay to eat a dog in China?' Assumptions of national food-eating practices in intercultural interaction” this article from the aspect of culture ideology illustrates that dog as a kind of food widely exists both in mainland China and other Asia country. The paper builds on “this literature by investigating how cultural assumptions of national food-eating practices are deployed, contested and co-constructed in an online, voice-based chat room.” Author Using content analysis, as the result the author indicate that cultural practices or culture ideology are some kind rhetorical purposes to recover people’s behavior and given them some reason, and it can be treated as simple and complex in a single exchange.

On the other hands, the mainland China government gets pressure on abroad or western public opinion, as well as humanitarian criticism, some officials also wanted to end the bad effect of traditional culture on Chinese image. In the article “China May Make Dog and Cat Meat A Delicacy No More” China's National People's Congress is expected to consider banning a centuries-old culinary tradition: the consumption of dog and cat meat. The Times of London reports that a proposed law calls for imposing fines, jail time or both for anyone caught eating or selling dog or cat meat. Even dog or cat meats are still very popular in south China.

Compare with mainland China, Taiwan is more civilization to deer with pet issue. “Dog Keeping in Taiwan: Its Contribution to the Problem of Free-Roaming Dogs” we can see clearly, Taiwan in ideology and public sphere in the field of pet shows them responsible attitude, and always concerned, not like mainland China. The paper “conducted a quantitative ethnographic analysis of the influence of demographic factors and early experience (childhood exposure to dogs) on Taiwanese dog-keeping practices and behavior.” Through telephone survey by randomly selected sample of 2,001 Taiwan residents who had dog ownership experience. The results suggest that “low rates of neutering, easy availability of low- or no-cost puppies, a tendency to allow owned dogs free access to the outdoors, unrealistic expectations of dog ownership, canine behavioral problems, and religious and cultural taboos against euthanasia and shelter relinquishment have contributed to the recent increase in the numbers of free-roaming dogs in Taiwan. ”and author suggest that in the future government should efforts to reduce the stray dog problem by focus on enforcing registration fees, particularly for unsterilized animals; low-cost neutering schemes; and educational programs designed to promote neutering, improve knowledge of canine behavior and behavior problems, and develop more realistic expectations and attitudes toward dog ownership. As if all this, are shown from the government and public in Taiwan , people treat pets kindness and patience.

Another paper “Risk factors for unsuccessful dog ownership: An epidemiologic study in Taiwan” also shows the Taiwan social welfare for pet, the paper study from 259 Taiwanese dog owners in 2004 addressed one of the major contributors to dog overpopulation in Taiwan and draw a attention on unsuccessful dog ownership. The result is the younger the dog at acquisition the higher the risk may exists. The paper also want “preventing owners with a history of unsuccessful dog ownership from acquiring dogs was predicted to yield the largest reduction of risk of unsuccessful dog ownership among the investigated variables (population attributable fraction=33%, 95% CI=11%, 50%).”

And as same as mainland China, Taiwan is also facing the problem of pets, that inevitable problem of public health. According to the paper named “Humoral immune response to Dipylidium caninum infection of stray dogs in Taiwan”.
“Two kinds of homogeneous proglottid, mature and gravid, of Dipylidium caninum were used as the antigens for immunodiagnosis of canine dipylidiosis in stray dogs in Tainan, Taiwan. The ELISA was performed on 30 serum samples; 24 from dipylidiosis, four from ancylostomosis and two from toxocariosis. The ELISA have specificity and sensitive of 100 and 50% for mature proglottid extract, and 75 and 100%, respectively, for gravid proglottid extract. EITB technique showed two major peptide bands of 94.8 and 97.9 kDa were recognized in the sera pool of infected dogs.”
It seems it also critical situation in public health issue inferred pet issue in Taiwan, but the Taiwan government did not kill pets, but the choice for the more humanitarian approach to handle this problem, and formed a sharp contrast compare with mainland China government.

In China the NGO in the protection of pet made outstanding contributions, it also act the role of a good guide in the promotion of ideology and Public sphere, NGO itself location is also suitable for cross-strait exchange their views on the pet issue. In recent year, China NGO development very soon. The paper “Beyond Civil Society: An Organizational Perspective on State-NGO Relations in the People's Republic of China” indicate recently, China people has witnessed an explosion of NGOs. And paper gives us two approaches to analyzing the problem: “the civil society framework and the privatization perspective. It then proffers a third way: an approach based on organizational analysis. ”Using zero-sum game theory analyzed both the civil society and privatization perspectives between a monolithic state and NGOs/citizens, as the result evidence reveals that“ Chinese NGOs are often much more interested in building alliances with state agencies and actors than in autonomy from the government. ”For realistic perspective, that is makes sense. But in China NGO organizational legitimacy remains to be further confirmed by government.

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