Diverse Nature of Psychology

Diverse Nature of Psychology

Psychology is a science that discusses theories on the mind and behaviors and consists of many sub-disciplines and theories[K1]. Industrial/Organizational psychology, abnormal psychology, and clinical psychology recognize different areas of human life and behavior and discuss ways to improve the workplace, quality of life, and relationships. Each sub-discipline explains ways to keep a client motivated through [K2]working on thought patterns and behaviors. Various theories provide explanation and research bases for a psychologist for referral purposes. Measurable research data relates psychology to other scientific fields and gives the field more validity as a science.

Fields of Psychology and Application of Theory
Industrial/organizational psychology promotes productivity and morale in the workplace. This sub-discipline is valuable to companies as well as employees and management. A psychologist comes in and observes working conditions such as physical setting (lighting in work area) or communications (with coworkers and management). The psychologist fixes issues within the workplace to improve conditions, productivity, and communication (Spector, 2008). According to Kanfer, “integrated theoretical perspectives[K3]” involve “goal establishment, goal planning, goal striving, and goal revision” (Kanfer, 2005, p. 187). A worker motivates him [K4]or herself to perform if given a chance to exude confidence and self-reliability. This idea back [K5]the achievement motivation theory, which explains people will only work for incentives (Deckers, 2005).
Abnormal psychology discusses psychological disorders and implications for a person with a disorder. Psychologists working in this field study symptoms and provide treatment for clients with mental illnesses. Many times someone with a mental illness also sees a psychiatrist and takes medication. Disorders vary from depression to schizophrenia,[K6] addiction to Alzheimer’s disease (Damour & Hansell, 2008). Theories explain the cause of disorders. “The diathesis-stress model posits that the development of a disorder requires the interaction of a diathesis (predisposition) and a stressor (precipitant)” (Damour & Hansell, 2008, p. 32). A person with any disorder may work on behaviors to deal with stressors.
Clinical psychology involves psychotherapy with a client by either a clinical social worker or psychologist. The client-base needs the help of a professional to overcome a disorder or needs to work on a family issue or other relationship. Sometimes the therapist will help a person deal with grief or help a student better to [K7]conform to rules and regulations. Each clinical worker uses a theory of choice to base approaches on so that the client reaches a positive therapeutic outcome. The humanistic approach generally allows more sensitivity with the client and gently nudges [K8]in the right direction, whereas [K9]cognitive-behavioral therapy uses aggressive thought changing techniques (Plante, 2005).
Impact of Diversity in Psychology
Psychology’s broad field work makes for a multitude of research in many areas important to human life. Psychology includes an array of sub-disciplines. Because so many sub-disciplines exist within psychology, psychologists compile research and statistics in multiple settings and situations. Psychology focuses on behaviors of people based on genetics, the environment, physical illnesses, and other variables. Psychology becomes more valid as research compares and agrees with other sciences. For example, biopsychology is a sub-discipline of psychology, but explains how the brain directly relates to behavior and therefore psychology agrees with anatomy and physiology (Wickens, 2005).
Conclusion
Psychology includes many sub-disciplines like I/O, abnormal, and clinical psychology. Psychologists base approaches and field work on the theories of psychologists before them. Because psychology splits into many sub-disciplines, a wide array of information applies to other fields of science. Empirical evidence on theories and agreeableness of psychology to other scientific fields gives psychology validity as a science.

Personal Reflection
My interest in psychology stems from wanting to understand people better and wanting to help people. I worked in a nursing home and realized the importance of clinical workers in this setting. I have an interest in preserving the quality of life of patients with dementia or psychological disorders in a nursing home setting. My general interest is in abnormal psychology in all ages and fair treatment of the mentally ill. Finally, I value I/O psychology for the positive effect the field gives to the workplace. I would enjoy fixing quarrels, helping increase productivity and work conditions, and building professional communications. Healthy lifestyles occur when a person finds value and purpose in daily activities. [K10]

References
Damour, L. & Hansell, J. (2008). Abnormal psychology (2nd ed.). United States: Wiley.
Deckers, L. (2005). Motivation: Biological, Psychological, and Environmental[K11], (2nd ed.). New
York: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.
Kanfer, R. (2005). Self-regulation research in work and I/O psychology. Applied Psychology: An
International Review. 54(2), 186-191. Oxford: International Association for Applied Psychology. Retrieved March 12, 2011 from University of Phoenix library: http://ecampus.phoenix.edu
Plante, T. G. (2005). Contemporary clinical psychology (2nd ed.) Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Spector, P. E. (2008). Industrial and organization psychology: Research and practice (5th ed.).
Danvers, MA: Wiley.
Wickens, A. (2005). Foundations of biological psychology (4th Ed.) New York: Pearson/Prentice Hall