Social Psychology Terms and Definitions Paper

Social Psychology Terms and Definitions

Persuasion – How do we change other people’s attitudes?
Attitudes are learned
The process by which your attitudes change after receiving some information
Some factors are:
Pervasiveness of message
Stronger attitudes that may affect the level of persuasiveness
Commitment – People want to be faithful
Embittered – it goes along who we perceive are selves to be

Theories of Persuasion
Cognitive Response Model – persuasion depends on your responses to a message
Positive responses – will lead to attitude change
Attractive medium and timely deliver will help
Counter arguments – they can also help be persuasive
Elaboration Likelihood Model – there are two ways to change someone’s attitude
Central Route – changing attitude through thought
Motivation and Ability are needed
Peripheral Route – when were persuaded by superficial cues
If motivation and ability are needed to use the central route, the peripheral route can be used
Cognitive Dissonance – the discomfort that cause by doing or think something discrepant from your typical thoughts or behaviors
Attitude discrepant behavior – we try to justify the behavior
Post-decision dissonance
Effort Justification – dissonance reduced because you like it more
Defensive Denial – when we hear information that is opposition to what we believe about them selves, we tend to defend ourselves
Positive mood and attitude change – when you’re in a good mood you want to stay in a good mood
Fear Appeals – it appeals most effective when it elicits moderate fear and gives guidance in how to deal with the fear
Measures of Attitude – the more specific the easer it is to measure it
Public or private – publicly they may not admit true feelings
Subjective Norms – the situation changes the outcome
Informational Social Influence – when the situation makes you conform because you’re not sure what to do
Sherif – auto kinetic experiment – the light movement test
This type of conformity leads to private acceptance
Normative Social Influence – we conform to be accepted, leads to public conformity
Ash – the line length study
Compliance – influencing others through direct or specific request
Factors that affect compliance – Catching people off guard, how and when you ask,
Norms of reciprocity – we treat other as we want to be treated
Foot-in-door – break the ice by getting the customer to do a small request they easily can not refuse to do
Door-in-face – Make a request that is so large they have to say no, then follow up with a smaller request
Low-balling – offer a price or deal so they fall in love with the idea of the object then say they need to pay
“And that’s not all” – the deal just gets better

Obedience – an authority figure influences others
Dime Study – an official person stand on the street and told people what to do
Four Reasons for Obedience
Closeness in proximity to the authority figure
Were distance from the victim
Did not feel personally responsible
Had escalating orders
Psychological Distress Studies – the experimenters see if participants will cause psychological remarks beyond reasonable levels

The Presence of Others
Deindividuation – how people behave when they feel the normal constraints have been lifted
Could be caused by loss of accountability, inhibitions, self-awareness
Formation of group identity rather then a personal identity
Social Loafing – the way in which we slack off because our individual contributions can not be accounted or identified
Groups – Criteria – Interdependence, Identity, Structure (Social Norms, Social Roles, Status System)
Importance of Groups – Social Identity –cauterize or groups that are part of your self definition
Collective Self-esteem – we want to be part of a group that makes us feel positive
Social Support – gives people other people they can talk to, which improves you social well being, increases your health, and it can increases academic support
Group Polarization – people tend to make more extreme decision in groups then they would alone
This happens because group settings allow for more ideas to flow
Often there’s a need to belong so you identify a more extreme view of things to fit in or distinguish you self
Groups and leadership – Leader – the person who provides the most influence and provides the most direction
There are two main types of Leadership are Task and Social motivational
Successful leaders are flexible they can use both
Effects of gender and culture of leaders
There is not a large difference between the genders
Women tend to be more democratic in decision making
Groups and Conflict – perceptions of the “Other” – the same behavior is seen differently depending on your viewpoint
Attitude – a positive, negative or mixed reaction to a person, object or idea
How are attitudes measured?
Attitude Scales – a multiple-item questionnaire designed to measure a person’s attitude toward some object
Likert Scale – multiple-point scale used to measure strengths of attitude
Bogus Pipeline – a phony lie-detector device that is sometimes used to get respondents to give truthful answers to sensitive questions
Facial Electromyography – An Electronic instrument that records muscle activity associated with emotions and attitudes
Implicit Attitudes – an attitude such as prejudice that one has, but is not aware of having
Theory of planned behavior – The theory that attitudes toward a specific behavior combine with subjective norms and perceive control to influence a person’s actions
Attitude and behavior
People tend to behave in ways that are consistent with their attitudes with when they are well informed
The attitudes are affect by the amount of information but also how it was received
Attitudes are effect by how easily the information is brought to mind
Persuasion – The process by which attitudes are changed
Central Route to persuasion – the process by which a person thinks carefully about a communication and is influenced by the strength of its arguments
Peripheral route to persuasion – the process by which a person does not think carefully about a communication and is influenced by superficial cues
Elaboration – the process of thinking about and scrutinizing the arguments contained in a persuasive communication
Which of these route are taken depends if there is motivation or ability to take the central route – if they’re lacking then the peripheral route is taken
There are three factors is persuasion
Source – who is delivering the information
Message - what is the context of the communication
Audience – who is hearing the information
People are more easily persuaded if the person is good looking, appears competent, and the audience is in a good mood
Fear Appeal – increases the incentive to change for those who do not actively resist it, but its ultimate impact depends on strength of the arguments – and on whether the message also contains reassuring advice on how to avoid the threatened danger
Inoculation hypothesis – the idea that exposure to weak versions of a persuasive argument increases later resistance to that argument
Psychological reactance – The theory that people react against threats to their freedom by asserting themselves and perceiving the threatened freedom as more attractive
Cognitive dissonance theory – The theory that holding inconsistent cognitions arouses psychological tension that people become motivated to reduce – involves our beliefs attitudes, and behavior
Insufficient justification – a condition in which people freely perform an attitude-discrepant behavior without receiving a large reward
Insufficient deterrence - a condition in which people refrain from engaging in a desirable activity, even when only mild punishment is threatened
Four steps are necessary for the arousal and reduction of dissonance
The Attitude-discrepant behavior must produce unwanted negative consequences
Must produce personal responsibility
Must produce physiological arousal
The person must make an attribution about the thing that caused the arousal
Conformity – the tendency to change our perceptions, opinions, or behaviors in ways that are consistent with group norms
Automatic conformity – we will conform without knowing it.
Informational influence – Influence that produces conformity when a person believes other are correct in their judgments
Normative influence - Influence that produces conformity when a person fears the negative social consequences of appearing deviant
Private conformity – The change of beliefs that occurs when a person privately accepts the position taken by others
Public Conformity – A superficial change in overt behavior without a corresponding change of opinion, produced by real or imagined group pressure
Minority influence – The process by which dissenters produce change within a group
Compliance – changes in behavior that are elicited by direct request
Norm of reciprocity – we treat others, as we want to be treated
Obedience – behavior change produced by the commands of authority
Reasons for obedience
Authority of the one in command
Distance from the victim
Lose of person responsibility
Gradual acceleration of harm
Social Impact theory – The theory that social influence depends on the strength, immediacy, and the number of source persons relative to target persons
Social facilitation – a process whereby the presence of others enhances performance on easy task but impairs performance on difficult task
Zojonc Three Steps –
The presence of others creates general physiological arousal, which energizes behavior
Increased arousal enhances an individual’s tendency to perform the dominant response or the quickest and most powerful response.
The quality of an individual’s performance varies according to their type of task

Social Loafing – individuals will not perform at optimal levels if their contribution cannot be individual measured.
If you convince them that their contribution will pay off they will work even harder
People will feel lost in the crowd, if they do not stand out
The presence of others motivates people on simple tasks
The presence of others cause pressure and decreased performance
Deindividuation – the loss of a person’s sense of individuality and the reduction of normal constraints against deviant behavior

Group Polarization – the exaggeration through group discussion of initial tendencies in the thinking of group members
Groupthink – a group decision-making style characterized be excessive tendency among group members to seek concurrence
Will reject members with apposing ideas
People are generally from similar backgrounds, directed by a single leader, lack a systematic system of decision making and review of decisions
Often occurs under stress
Overestimating the power of the group, group thinks their invulnerable
There increased pressure through uniformity
To Prevent group think
Avoid isolation
Reduce conformity pressures, open minded leaders,
Use critical review of past decisions
Group Performance
Additive Task – the group product is the sum of all members
Conjunctive task - the group product is determined by the weakest member
Disjunctive task - the group product is determined by the strongest member
Process Loss – the reduction in-group performance due to obstacles created by group processes, such as problems of coordination and motivation

Social dilemma – a situation in which a self-interested choice by everyone creates the worst outcome for everyone

Reasons for group conflict escalation
Threat Capacity – people want to scare the other groups with threats of harm
Polarization of ideas – the stronger groups get the ideas of other can escalate
Negative views of the other group
Entrapment – the condition in which commitment to a failing course of action are increased to justify investment already made – we choosing this course and we need to stick to it
Group Conformity – make it hard to see the other sides point of view