Theory to Practice Paper: Organization Attitudes and Behavior

Theory to Practice Paper: Organization Attitudes and Behavior

I will use my father’s career for this assignment because he plays two roles in the work world: he is a doctor in a public hospital and he owns a business with a colleague. My father is a specialist in Plastic Surgery and he is a partner in a Medical Clinic, which he is the management also.
He works for the city in the public hospital for over twenty years and as a private doctor and manager at the clinic for over fifteen years. He has his own office, just as his partner and they have three more offices that they rent for other doctors. At the Clinic there’s also a dressing room, an exam room and an X-Ray room. To cover all the topics proposed in Chapter 10: Organizational Attitudes and Behavior, I will use the information that I collected when I worked there in 2007 as a secretary and what I heard from him over the years.

Job satisfaction: the degree of pleasure an employee derives from his job, p. 302.
My father likes being a doctor, he is very proud of his career and of everything that he achieved with it. He is always working but he’s also very stressed and doesn’t have much free time, he is half of the month on call which makes hard for to go too far from a hospital or to stay with our family and his friends. For him, work comes first.

Job involvement: the degree to which a person identifies psychologically with his work and the importance of work to one’s self-image p. 307.
My father modeled his personality through the years in his work. He became very serious and strict, as if everything is an emergency. He even introduces himself as “Doctor Rovilson”, not taking into consideration if he is being introduced to one of my friends at a barbecue and that he doesn’t need to be formal. Being a doctor is the biggest role in life, being a doctor is who he is.

Work commitment: the extent to which an employee feels a sense of allegiance to his work p. 308.
As my father is not only a doctor, but is also a manager of his own business, he wanted me and my brother to continue the “business” and help other people. He believes that being a doctor is the best career in the world, that is full of proud and honor, which made him very disappointed when I decided to be a Psychologist and not a doctor. But my brother is in Medical School now, so my father is a little bit happier.

Organizational justice: the fair treatment of people in organizations p. 310.
Many times, I believe that my father doesn’t think that what he gets for his job is fair, I don’t mean only payment (there are some surgeries that the hospital pays him less then thirty dollars) but about the materials he needs to do a surgery. He usually says that the administrators of the public hospital don’t know anything about health, surgery or people, for them the only that matters is money. They, which are people chosen by the Major, are only interested in saving money and because of that, the quality of the materials decrease, which put the patients life’s in risk.

Distributive justice: the fairness with which the outcomes or results are distributed among members of an organization p. 311.
On the pages 311 and 312 the three rules identified as Equity, Equality and Need can be seen in different aspects of my father’s job. As a doctor that works in the hospital, the best way should be equality, so all the sectors in the hospital would have the same good quality materials and workers, or even the Need rule would be good enough, in the way where the department that needs more attention would receive it. And at the Clinic as a manager I believe that the Equity rule would be more successful and productive, because the workers (such as assistants, nurses and secretaries) would have the chance to earn a raise for high performance.

Procedural justice: the fairness by which means are used to achieve results in an organization p. 313.
As the procedural justice refers to the issues of the selection process to work for the City hospital, it consisted in an exam (paper exam, to measure the knowledge of the candidates) and an interview with the director of the Hospital and the Human Resources director also. The test evaluates all the applicants’ knowledge which is fair, because gives all of them the same opportunity to get the job. Usually interviews can be very uncertain, making “friendship” or “favors” be chosen instead of high quality performance or knowledge.

Interactional justice: the fairness with which people are treated within an organization and the timeliness, completeness, and accuracy of the information received in an organization p. 315.
There are two kinds of interactional justice, interpersonal and informational. Interpersonal is composed by how people deal with people, if they are polite and mostly if they assume responsibility for their mistakes. And informational is when the employees in the organization share important information with each other. One situation that is very common and causes a lot of trouble at the hospital is when there are change of nurses, the ones of the day shift and the ones of the night shifts and they wouldn’t tell each other about the patients’ needs or the doctors’ new orders. The lack of communication usually causes misunderstandings among the doctors and the nurses, besides disturbing the patients.

Organizational Citizenship Behavior: the contributions that employees make to the overall welfare of the organization that go beyond the required duties of their job p. 316.
The characteristics that reflect a good behavior in the work world are presented by the book as altruism, conscientiousness, courtesy, sportsmanship and civic virtue (p. 316). As a doctor inside the organization (the hospital and/or the clinic) he has to be punctual, respect the rules and his co-workers. An example of courtesy is when he gives the patients his home phone number and cellphone, letting them know that any time they need, if they have any questions they are more than welcome to call. He is twenty-four hour available for his patients and their families, giving the patient freedom to come to my house to see him or to make questions, which is different from when he is on call because on this case the hospital calls him and he goes to the hospital. It is very unusual to a patient to come to the doctor’s house as it happened in my house. As being part of the organization he must follow the rules, attend the meetings, be on time, be polite with his co-workers and do his job the best way possible.

The Psychological Contract: the implied exchange relationship that exists between an employee and the organization p. 318.
When my father got into a partnership with a couple friends to build the Clinic they decided that all the decisions would be made in group. It didn’t happen. My father was the one that had more expectations toward the Clinic, and believed on it the most. As the manager, the owner and the worker he always get the building reformed, buys new equipment, deals with workers and suppliers. He believes that the Clinic is his patrimony much more than his partners; he wanted me and my brother to continue his job (as doctors and taking care of the clinic) and build our future with it just like he did. He feels safe of having his own business and proud of his success.

Organizational Politics: behavior exhibited within organizations by employees that is driven by self-interest p. 323.
In the hospital my father is only one of the hundreds of doctors that work there, along with all the rest of the staff. He has to follow the rules just like everybody else, and do whatever the director of the hospital tells him to do. He used to argue about better materials and equipment for the surgeries, plus better conditions to work, more nurses and assistants, but I believed that the got tired of fighting alone. Most of the doctors have their own business so they would only work in the hospital because they have to, so they would just go there, complete the hours and leave.

Organizational Deviance: behaviors exhibited within a work context that are harmful to other employees or the organization p. 326.
At the Clinic, as my father as the manager the situation that caught my attention happened a few months after I left my job as a secretary. When the secretary that worked there longer quit, but on her last day she went left opened two windows of the offices so some guys that she knew would come inside and steal computers, money and everything else they could find. And in the hospital my father says that many doctors, nurses and staff usually steal a lot of medication, needles, cotton, patch and small items like those. Sometimes they steal because they believe that is too expensive to buy (some medications) or they are too cheap and nobody will notice (needles and cotton).

Workplace homicide: a classification of murders that occur at the workplace, most committed by employees or customers p. 329.
I never heard anything about homicides where he works, the hospitals or the clinic.
Reading the book and learning the theoretical side of the work world helped me to understand the rules of the work environment. The book presents feelings and behaviors toward the organization and consequently one’s job, it talks about loyalty, human rights, job quality, and others issues that because I had never worked (full time) I hadn’t paying much attention. I believe that it is important for my father as a doctor and manager the knowledge about people’s behavior and attitudes toward the job they are doing, such as nurses or secretaries to avoid further conflicts and to help him to manage. Usually, when people get into a hospital or when they look for a doctor they are very nervous and anxious, and having a good work environment helps not only the professionals but also the patient to get the surgery or treatment done the better way possible.
Writing this paper was important to me because it is easiest for me to learn and understand the theory when I have real life experiences, or examples, when the subject in the book becomes real life.